DIFFERENT FLAVOR CHARACTERISTICS OF COFFEE BEANS FROM 4 CONTINENTS
WHY DOES COFFEE MAINLY GROW NEAR THE EQUATOR?
Because the climate is the decisive factor for coffee planting, the origin of coffee trees in Ethiopia in Africa is more suitable for growing in the tropics or subtropics, so the area between 25 degrees north and south latitude is most suitable for planting coffee. This coffee-producing area is generally referred to as the "coffee belt" or "coffee zone".
However, not all the land located in this area can cultivate excellent coffee trees. The most ideal planting conditions for coffee trees are: a warm climate with a temperature between 15-25°C, and the annual rainfall must reach 1500-2000 mm. At the same time, the rainfall time should be able to match the flowering cycle of coffee trees. Of course, in addition to the coordination of seasons and rainfall, there must be fertile soil. The most suitable soil for growing coffee is well-drained, pozzolanic fertile soil.
In addition, although sunlight is an indispensable element for the growth and fruiting of coffee, too strong sunlight will affect the growth of coffee trees, so each production area usually plants some shade trees, generally planting bananas, and mangoes, legumes, and other trunks taller plants. The ideal altitude is 500-2000 meters.
Therefore, Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee is the best quality coffee grown at an altitude of 800-1200 meters. It can be seen that the conditions for cultivating high-quality coffee are quite strict: altitude, sunlight, rainfall, soil, temperature, as well as the way and production process of coffee beans, all affect the quality of the coffee itself.
1. CENTRAL AMERICA
Central America sits in the heart of the equatorial zone, often referred to as the Bean Belt for its near-perfect growing regions, The countries that make up the coffee bean belt include Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Oaring mountains, rich volcanic soil, old-growth forests, and predicable micro-climates.
Given this near-perfect geography, it is no surprise that Centrals consistently rank among the world's top coffees. Centrals, unlike many other types of coffee, also have the unique quality of being extraordinary single origins and beautifully compatible in most blends.
Acidity: Moderate to high
Body: Light to moderate
Roast: Medium roast to Vienna roast to preserve the bean’s delicate tones and moderate mouthfeel
Common identifying words: Balanced, bright, clean, smooth
Prominent flavor tones: Fruits, honey, and medium-to-dark chocolate. A hint of nut is often found in the base notes of many Centrals
Best time to buy: April – August
2. SOUTH AMERICA
South America sits on the Andes Mountains, the longest continental mountain range in the world. The major coffee regions are Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Coffee trees are growing on soaring mountain ranges with moderate sunshine and rain. The rich volcanic soil is beneath old-growth forests, and graced with stabilizing ocean winds. Long term temperature is 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit. Ideal growing conditions create premium coffee beans that are known around the world for their aroma and amazing smoothness.
Acidity: Moderate / Moderate-low
Roast: Medium to Vienna
Common identifying words: Sweet, aromatic, smooth, mild
Prominent flavor tones: Floral, soft citrus, mild nut
African coffee has possessed extraordinary growing conditions， such as a consistent equatorial climate with its soaring, majestic mountain ranges, and pristine growth forests. It the rich in flavors and is a specialty coffee paradise, such as crisp and clean exotic and honey-toned, and elegant, assertive complexity bound to bewitch all who love a Bright, winey, smooth, intense…powerful brew.
African coffee is known worldwide for special varieties such as Ethiopian Yirgacheffe or Kenyan AA, as well as countries with unique flavors and very high levels of specialty coffee, such as Burundi, Tanzania, and Rwanda.
Acidity: High / Moderate-high
Roast: Medium to Full city
Common identifying words: Bright, winey, fruity, smooth, crisp, intense
Prominent flavor tones: Ripe berry, red wine, rich citrus
4. SOUTHEAST ASIA'S
Asia's dramatic climate and unadulterated old-growth forests provide wonderful growing conditions for coffee. Spanning multiple bodies of water and countless, soaring volcanic mountain ranges, In many Asian coffee-growing countries, such as Indonesia, the coffee trade is dominated by small, family farms that employ traditional growing and harvesting practices — meaning that the coffee, while not certified organic, is grown naturally.
So the silky, rich, earthy, spicy, savory, and wild are the words most commonly used to describe Southeast Asia's coffees.
Mouthfeel: Moderate to heavy
Roast: Dark full-city to dark
Common identifying words: Rich, creamy, spicy, earthy, exotic
Prominent flavor tones: Dark chocolate, spices