Coffee Bean Roasting

In specialty coffee, the ideal roast level varies depending on the origin and flavor profile. Each region has unique terroir and roasting is an art to bring out the best notes.

In the meantime, there's no one-size-fits-all approach to roasting. Some coffee lovers prefer a light roast that preserves the bean's delicate flavors and aromas, while others crave the bold, smoky notes of a dark roast.

There are various methods to measure roast levels, such as using a thermometer, a roast curve, or categorizing based on color.

Ultimately, finding the perfect roast level is a matter of experimentation and taste preference, and it's a journey that every coffee enthusiast should embark on to discover their ideal cup of joe.

1. Basic Roast Levels and Popular Countries 1.1. Light roast from 401-410 ℉:

Flavor: mild sour, sweet (if roasted well), floral and fruity fragrance.
Grass or lemon sourness, (if it’s not good-roasted).
Popular Areas: Belgium, Nordic countries, Germany, Sweden, and America.

Brewing Way:Espresso、Americano、Doppio、Macchiato、Cortado、Cappuccino

Major Consumers: like to enjoy the scent of coffee beans, and should not be used with products such as sugar, fresh milk, and condensed milk.

Storage Time: It is recommended to use it up within one month after roasting, because the aroma is not long-lasting, but lightly roasted coffee will lose its aroma easily, so it tastes lighter.

1.2. Medium roast from 410-426.2 ℉:

Flavor: balanced, sweet, Fully demonstrates the characteristics of coffee beans

Popular Areas: northern France and parts of Japan.

Brewing Way:latte

Major Consumers: those who like the balance between scent and taste, and want to be accompanied by sugar and fresh milk when drinking.

Storage Time: longer than light roast, (with a tin can and an inert gas pump like Illy or a coffee bag with a valve). It is recommended to use it within one year after baking

1.3. Medium roast from 410-437 ℉

Medium to whole roast, quite dark,there will often be intermittent patches of oil on the coffee surface.

Flavor: bold (heavy body), roasted, and homogenous (because of losing the original, characteristic flavors in coffee beans).

Popular Areas:
southern France and northern Italy.

Brewing Way: latte、 Vietnamese iced coffee(ca phe sua da)、combining espresso

Major Consumers: suitable for those who like bold and mild bitterness, accompanied by sugar, fresh milk, and condensed milk.

Storage Time: Similar to medium roast, but can spoil quickly if not stored properly due to the oily surface of the coffee.

1.4. Very dark or even black roasting above 446℉

losing most of the inherent flavor, the surface of the coffee beans is dark and shiny due to the soy oil.

Flavor: mainly bitter, toasted, burnt wood.

Popular Areas: Spain, southern Italy, and Greece.
Brewing Way: Americano、French press

Major Consumers:
suitable for those who suitable in the morning and need to be extremely alert.

Storage Time: ofter short, It is recommended to use it one month after roasting because the oil on the surface of the coffee can easily spoil the coffee.

The process of flavor change during roasting


Very dark roast is also known as Italian roast, which refers to the darkest, most oily, and bitter roasted coffee beans. It's named after a southern Italian style of roasting, but most Italian roasters now prefer medium to whole roast.

Commercial roasters usually opt for medium to whole roast, which makes coffee fuller and lasts longer. With two cases of light roast (light roast) and very dark roast (dark roast, very black, or even black), it is only suitable for some customers, However, making a good cup of very dark roast coffee can be challenging and requires skill.